Concept list Norman 2003 40

This list of 40 items was proposed as a diagnostic test list to check whether a language belongs to the group of Sinitic languages or not. Note that what is labelled as "common chinese" in the list is a reconstruction system similar to that of Middle Chinese, but -- according to J. Norman -- less biased by the character readings of the traditional rhyme dictionaries published around 600 AD.

Id English Chinese English gloss Concept set