Concept list Swadesh 1960 100a

The source labels this list as Swadesh's standard list of 100 items, so it should be identical with the one he published in 1955. However, the concept labels differ to some degree. Be it for reasons of space or for other reasons unknown to us, all additional information of the labels was removed, thus making it impossible to distinguish, for example, whether "burn" is aiming at the transitive or the intransitive version of the concept. Similar confusion is created by items like "flesh" (is it human, animal, serving as food, or referring to the substance of living creatures?), and "rain" (verb or noun?), which actually also occurs on the second, supposedly less stable list also attributed to Swadesh and reported in the same source.

Id English English gloss Concept set