Concept list Johansson 2017 56

The present list was compiled in the phonosemantic study which investigated cross-linguistic phoneme distributions of 56 fundamental oppositional concepts across 75 genetically and areally distributed languages. The concepts, selected for this purpose, are organized in antonymous pairs, and the column PAIR reflects which antonyms belong together. The internal order of the items in the column ORDER, with one member being mentioned first, does not imply the hierachical superiority or salience of one element over the other but simply reflects the order in which the words are listed in the source. The concept data for this list were derived from Swadesh (1971); Holman et al. (2008); Pagel et al. (2013); Goddard and Wierzbicka (2002), and Willners (2001).

Id English Concept set